Long before Columbus crossed the Atlantic, eight timber-framed buildings included in sod stood on a terrace above a peat bog and move at the northern tip of Canada’s island of Newfoundland, evidence that the Vikings had reached the New World first.
But exactly when the Vikings journeyed to establish the L’Anse aux Meadows settlement had remained unclear – till now.
Scientists on Wednesday said a new type of dating technique using a long-ago solar storm as a reference point published that the settlement used to be occupied in 1021 AD, exactly a millennium in the past and 471 years before the first voyage of Columbus. The technique used to be used on three pieces of wood reduce for the settlement, all pointing to the same year.
The Viking voyage represents multiple milestones for humankind. The settlement provides the earliest-known evidence of a transatlantic crossing. It additionally marks the place where the globe used to be finally encircled by humans, who lots of years earlier had trekked into North America over a land bridge that once linked Siberia to Alaska.
“Much kudos have to go to these northern Europeans for being the first human society to traverse the Atlantic,” said geoscientist Michael Dee of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, who led the study published in the journal Nature.
The Vikings, or Norse people, have been seafarers with Scandinavian homelands: Norway, Sweden and Denmark. They ventured through Europe, sometimes colonizing and different instances trading or raiding. They possessed excellent boat-building and navigation skills and established settlements on Iceland and Greenland.
“I think it is honest to describe the trip as each a voyage of discovery and a search for new sources of raw materials,” Dee said. “Many archaeologists believe the principal motivation for them seeking out these new territories used to be to uncover new sources of timber, in particular. It is generally believed they left from Greenland, where wood suitable for construction is extremely rare.”
Their wooden vessels, called longboats, have been propelled through sail and oars. One surviving example, called the Oseberg ship, is roughly 70 feet (21.6 meters long).
The Viking Age is traditionally defined as 793-1066 AD, presenting a extensive range for the timing of the transatlantic crossing. Ordinary radiocarbon dating – determining the age of organic materials via measuring their content of a particular radioactive isotope of carbon – proved too imprecise to date L’Anse aux Meadows, which used to be discovered in 1960, although there was once a general belief it used to be the 11th century.
The new dating approach depends on the fact that solar storms produce a distinctive radiocarbon signal in a tree’s annual growth rings. It used to be known there used to be a significant solar storm – a burst of high-energy cosmic rays from the solar – in 992 AD.
In all three pieces of wood examined, from three different trees, 29 growth rings have been shaped after the one that bore evidence of the solar storm, meaning the wood used to be reduce in 1021, said University of Groningen archaeologist Margot Kuitems, the study’s first author.
It used to be not local indigenous people who reduce the wood because there is evidence of metal blades, which they did not possess, Dee said.
The size of the occupation remains unclear, though it may have been a decade or less, and perhaps 100 Norse people have been present at any given time, Dee said. Their structures resembled Norse buildings on Greenland and Iceland.
Oral histories called the Icelandic Sagas depict a Viking presence in the Americas. Written down centuries later, they describe a chief named Leif Erikson and a agreement called Vinland, as well as violent and peaceful interactions with the local peoples, including capturing slaves.
The 1021 date roughly corresponds to the saga accounts, Dee said, adding: “Thus it begs the question, how much of the relaxation of the saga adventures are true?”