The Italian government is expected to have more debt than expected, with a deficit of 4.3%, which is fueled by the already enormous public debt exceeding 140% of GDP. This has led to increased uncertainty regarding the sustainability of the Italian economic system and generated fears from foreign investors.
The value of the spread has also increased, resulting in a yield on Italian ten-year bonds being around 2% higher than their German counterparts. Greek bonds, despite having lower yields, are considered safer by the market, as they have lower annual returns.
The dynamics of Italian debt are considered explosive, as it is increasing more than the GDP growth rate, indicating that more is spent than collected/earned. Italy is indebted by 4.3% despite growth of around 1%, threatened by an international context characterized by high tension and restrictive monetary policy. This affects those who systematically resort to excessive indebtedness more accentuated than those who use it more parsimoniously and balancedly.
Economic theory suggests that borrowing resources is normal and can be used to increase the productivity of the economic system and repay debt without problems. By stimulating GDP and implementing economic reforms, it is possible to reduce the debt-to-GDP ratio, increasing general wealth and decreasing national debt. However, inappropriate use of borrowed resources can lead to low productivity and competitiveness, resulting in increased interest rates and negative effects.
As the shadow of an economic crisis approaches, the spectre of a hypothetical Italian economic default is approaching. This means that the Italian state may not be able to repay its debts. To balance the situation, it is essential to consider the Italian economic system’s strong integration with the global economy and the interests of the country’s membership in the European Union and Eurozone. High disruptions and tensions may lead to confrontations with international players.
In the event of a default, it is crucial to consider who benefits from such an event and consider who benefits from such an event. By considering these factors, it is possible to mitigate the negative effects of borrowing and ensure the sustainability of the Italian economy.
The Italian economy is facing a complex situation that could worsen if it defaults, leading to a European recession and a global one. The National Recovery and Resilience Plan (PNRR) has significant resources that could positively impact the economy, stimulating productivity and competitiveness. An economic policy that looks to the medium-long term is necessary to ensure functional use for the community of interest.
There are three possible scenarios: worst (highly unlikely), medium (unlikely), and best (highly probable). The worst scenario involves Italy defaulting, declaring its inability to honour its enormous public debt, leading to a European recession and a global one. The medium scenario allows Italy to access international financing and bailout plans, provided economic reforms improve its performance and public finances. The best scenario requires thoughtful choices and a long-term vision to manage the debt through prudent policies and reduced public spending.
The first scenario is nearly impossible, as the Italian economy has substantial resources and players in the field. However, the extreme hypothesis is contained within market information and current interest rates.