Australia, India and South Africa have important economic interests as littoral states in the Indian Ocean region. In November 1993, R. F. South Africa and India took the initiative for regional cooperation in the Indian Ocean region during Bodha’s visit to India. Australia, which was facing competition from the North-East Pacific Ocean countries, was keen to establish its presence in the ocean region and establish contacts with the littoral states.
In early 1994, Australia supported efforts by India and South Africa to form a regional trading block in the Indian Ocean region. This was part of Australia’s Look West strategy. Australia also began to play an active role in a Core Group of 7 countries established in Port Louis, Mauritius. It organized a conference of non-governmental representatives from 23 countries on 12–13 June 1995 in Perth, Western Australia.
Two meetings of the Indian Ocean Rim Consultative Business Network (IOCN) and the Indian Ocean Research Network (IOCN) was held in New Delhi (11-13 December 1995) and Durban, South Africa (10-11 March 1997). The participants of the Durban meeting agreed to meet again in Indonesia in late 1998.
Since the early 1990s, economic relations between India and Australia have shown dramatic growth, particularly in the areas of trade and investment. The gradual transformation and liberalization of the Indian economy have boosted bilateral trade relations to a great extent. Despite the status of a developing country, India has great potential as a market for goods and services. In 1994, the Indian economy was estimated to be the fifth largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. This fact is of great commercial importance to Australia.
India-Australia trade grew by almost 200 per cent in 1991 and reached US$1.8 billion (Australian $2 billion) by 1997–98.
India’s exports to Australia include cotton textiles and clothing, engineering goods, chemicals and allied goods, horticultural and agricultural goods, and leather products. India imports coal, wool and non-ferrous equipment, paper and dry fruits in bulk from Australia.
India’s trade with Australia
Rs 13,680 crore
(US $ 390.86 million) Rs 15,817 crore
(US$ 395.43 million)
Rs 46,761 crore
(US $ 1,336.03 million) Rs 55,611 crore
(US $ 1390.28 million)
1 US dollar =
at the rate of Rs.35
1 US dollar =
at the rate of Rs 40
Pokhran-II and Indo-Australian relations
Australia’s response to India’s nuclear tests
Australia’s response to India’s nuclear tests was generally regarded in both Australia and India as an “overreaction”. On 12 May 1998, Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer stated that the (Australian) government considered the tests to be outside the bounds of international practice. The (Australian) government recalled its ambassador from New Delhi for consultations, withdrew its military support and ended non-humanitarian aid. In comparison, Russia and its European friends, France and the UK were milder in their criticism.
Mainly he got CTBT from India. asked to sign. In July A. R. F. (II) ASEAN refrained from condemning it, although Japan, Australia and China kept up the pressure. These three countries, along with the United States, had demanded that India be granted CT without any conditions with Pakistan. BT and end its nuclear weapons program, as it threatens a nuclear arms race. In retaliation, India also took some steps, such as recalling its defence attaché, not allowing Australian Navy ships to enter Indian ports, not allowing military aircraft to fly over Indian airspace, etc.
Changing Diplomatic Realities
In a world of conflict and competing interests, the diplomatic structures within which nations behave are constantly changing. The end of the Cold War and economic growth in Asia have contributed to the changing diplomatic balance. From Australia’s point of view, this has increased the possibility of diplomatic competition among the important powers of the region.
Australia’s major diplomatic interests in the 70s and 80s were in the regions of South East Asia and the South West Pacific. South Asia has never been more prominent in Australia’s diplomatic equations. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the aftermath of the nuclear tests by India and Pakistan brought more clarity to Australia’s security approaches to South Asia. Shortly after the test, Australia’s Foreign Ministry warned that the hostility of the two countries (India and Pakistan) and the lack of nuclear security paradigms were the greatest danger of nuclear war in the world so far.
Australia–India Relations: Prospects and Overview
It would be beneficial to ask some logical questions in this context. For example, does Australia fully understand the India-Pakistan-China problem, or in other words, does it understand India’s security interests and threats?
Is it sensitive to the dimensions of s? It is not that Australia is totally ignorant of India’s diplomatic compulsions with regard to Pakistan and China, as far as Pakistan is concerned, it has a history as an adversary in the Kashmir dispute and the India and Pakistan (U.N.M.O.) G.I.P.) every year from 1948 to 1985 it sent six military personnel every year as a part of the United Nations Observer Group. Sir Owen Dixon, Judge of the High Court of Australia, was appointed as the United Nations mediator between India and Pakistan. In his report to the Security Council on September 19, 1950, Sir Owain Dixon suggested that since all efforts by mediators had failed, the parties concerned should be left alone to work out a solution on their own. In 1954, during the debate in Australia on the SEATO Bill, the Kashmir question also came up. The main question was whether, in the event of a war between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir issue, Australia would side with Pakistan against another Commonwealth member.
Although the then Australian Foreign Minister, R.P. Casey supported non-interventionism, however, he reassured Pakistan of any misunderstandings arising from the treaty (CATO). Understandably, this angered India and reinvigorated relations that had almost disappeared under the Labor government. With regard to China, Australia recognizes the fact that China wants to play a more important role in the region. The December 1997 Australian Diplomatic Review stated that “we do not see China as a threat to Australia”. is fundamental to sustainability.
Even after acknowledging its Asian neighbours, the question remains: to what extent is Australia independent in its foreign policy and security planning? Will he continue to call for a world without nuclear weapons while living under the nuclear umbrella of the United States or will he ask to bring India under this umbrella as well? India’s Defense Minister George Fernandes cited Diego Garcia as a reason for the nuclear tests.
Will Australia accept an Indian Ocean Peace Zone (IOCZ) that may require the United States to remove military facilities from the island (Diego Garcia)? Even if travel rights were secured for the United States, as former Australian Foreign Minister Gareth Evans noted, the problem of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone would have dimensions beyond mere travel rights.
The words ‘skaumash’ and ‘shikpash’ have been used intermittently for so-called shocks in Australia-India relations. Despite having similar characteristics, such as Commonwealth membership, the federal government, and the hosting of cricket games, their relationship has always been at a distance. Australia’s main exports go to East Asia. India’s main trading partners are the United States and the European Community (EC) countries.
India’s total exports to Australia in 1997-98 were US$ 395 million, while imports were US$ 1990 million. The Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Security and Trade submitted a report on Australia’s trade relations on 29 June 1998, noting the importance of India for Australian trade and capital investment. Then will India’s status as a nuclear country affect Australia’s trade with India?
Australia’s key priorities now are not that different from India’s in many areas. Both aspire to a world without nuclear weapons and India is on the way to signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and F. Ready to discuss MCT. The two countries can cooperate towards a meaningful geostrategic operational structure to conduct and enforce the moratorium on nuclear tests. Australia can promote to encourage India so that India can solve its problem with Pakistan and China.
ASEAN, IOR – ARC
For example, there are multilateral forums, in addition to the Commonwealth, where Australia and India can discuss topics of common interest. India’s poor performance in terms of Security Council seats shows that it needs friends. He can give a guarantee to Australia for dialogue with SAARC. Finally, as suggested by the Joint Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, Security and Trade, two important areas that could promote Australia’s interest in India are the re-transmission of Radio Australia broadcasts in India and a hybrid loan or soft loan facility.
If there has been any justification for the tests, it is that they have provided an opportunity for a meaningful re-examination of Australia-India relations. When India conducted nuclear tests in May 1998, Australia reacted particularly strongly. On 11 May, Prime Minister John Howard described India’s move as “an inappropriate step”. On 14 May, Foreign Affairs Minister Alexander Downer described the tests as an “absolutely reprehensible act”. At the same time, all bilateral political and military contacts and humanitarian aid were prohibited. India considered this language and attitude diplomatically inappropriate.
No. The immediate reaction in India was, who is Australia to decide about India’s security interests? India had the impression of Australia being a country too eager to appease the United States with whom India always had diplomatic and perspective differences. Considering that such reactions came from a country that was under the nuclear protection of the United States and that had conducted a nuclear test on its soil for another country, these reactions were veiled.
The worst part of these reactions was that they encouraged all the old and negative images of Australia in India and India in Australia, images that took a long time to be erased and which have been erased to some extent. On 28 May 1998, India retaliated by suspending all bilateral military cooperation, forbidding Australian naval ships from entering Indian ports and maritime boundaries, and suspending flights of Australian military aircraft over Indian airspace.
As far as India is concerned, its political dominant class did not show the diplomatic acumen that was required in the immediate post-nuclear testing phase, especially in making its intentions known which it did only at a later stage.
Since then there has been a standstill in Indo-Australian relations. It is important to reduce the distance in approaches, so as to reap the mutual benefits arising out of closer economic ties. There is an urgent need to reduce the differences. Current political operations point to the need for an additional element in two synergistic frameworks: (a) emphasizing areas of common interest and (b) not over-emphasizing differences.
Resumption of normal Indo-Australian relations in 2000
Relations between the two countries soured after India’s Pokhran-II nuclear test in May 1998, but by the end of 1999, Australia realized that it could put any kind of pressure on India to give up nuclear weapons. Can’t finish building. India’s strong democratic tradition and huge economy have forced Australia to adopt a soft approach. Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer paid a four-day visit to India in March 2000, immediately after US President Bill Clinton’s visit to India.
During this important visit, he met Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Foreign Minister Jaswant Singh. Even before this, officials of the foreign ministries of the two countries held talks in New Delhi in February 2000 on some common ground, which according to Mr Downer – was based on “our common interests and values”. Restoration of parliamentary democracy, both countries related to regional security. R. F. (ASEAN Regional Forum) and are committed to equal membership of the Commonwealth. Both countries based on regional cooperation I.O. R. – a. R. Received membership of emerging regional associations like Ocean Rim Association (Indian Ocean Rim Association). According to the Australian Foreign Minister, issues of common interest to the two countries include South-East Asia, the World Trade Organization and the environment.
Australia is providing cooperation in removing terrorism from India. Downer condemned the brutal killing of 35 Sikhs in Kashmir during US President Clinton’s visit to India in March 2000. Downer said Australia takes a tough stand against this type of terrorism.
Mr Jaswant Singh and Mr Downer agreed, in principle, to hold re-defence talks in May 1998 to end the bitterness that followed the Pokhran-II test. As stated by the Australian Foreign Minister himself, this was a good start and Australia appreciated India’s growing importance in regional and global affairs Australia looked forward to a wide-ranging dialogue with India on issues of importance to diplomacy. The importance of developing In this way both countries committed to each other to improve diplomatic relations.
There are three important areas of commonality between Australia and India, which need to be exploited more to promote friendship. These are valued, structural and economic. The democratic political process, secular politics and trust in the political system are important links between the two countries. Multiculturalism is another common feature, with both countries having populations of many ethnic groups. The rise of Pauline Hansen threatened Australia’s image as a multicultural country, but her fall has highlighted the enduring potential of its multicultural spirit. Structural similarities can be found in two important areas of power decentralization.
One is the federal structure of government under which the two states follow a similar pattern in terms of territorial power sharing. Another structural similarity stems from the parliamentary form of government that both countries follow. Also, both cover vast geographical locations with immense resources and potential.
Economic essentials for better relations
Economic need is on both sides for better relations. India is the chosen one as far as Australia is concerned. It is one of the systems where there is potential for trade and markets. Southeast Asia is in trouble and Japan is on the verge of economic collapse. Europe and the United States are themselves searching for new markets and, therefore, there is hardly any interest in Australian wool and other commodities.
In addition, the balance of trade between Australia and India is largely in favour of Australia. While Australia’s exports to India are worth US$1-4 billion, India’s exports are only US$395 million. From India’s point of view, the main interest would be in the transfer of technology. But India can get it from other places also.
Hence, the creation of common interests is the call of the hour. According to Jim Cannon in the Australian Financial Review, Australia should not miss the opportunity to forge a new and meaningful relationship with India. For this, there is a dire need to understand and accept each other’s realities, mainly regional, political, diplomatic and economic.
Need for more effective political operations
It is essential to handle differences that are resolved through mild positive feedback. Positive diplomacy needs to be activated. There is a need to control those activities in international and multilateral fora so that the interests of each other are not harmed.
This fact is particularly mentioned in the following context: Australia’s pressure tactics against India at the ASEAN summit, South Africa’s stand on the issue at the Non-Aligned Movement summit in Durban in 1998 and India’s nuclear explosions. strongly supported the UN resolution against
Issues ranging from narcotics, and small arms trade in the Indian Ocean to maritime resources and security of sea lanes are shared by both countries. In the context of all this, Australia and India can work within a collaborative framework. Both countries can highlight similar features in the context of Chemical and Biological Weapons, WTO, the South Asia Region and the ASEAN Regional Forum.