How are US foreign policy Features and objectives?

by Ramesh pokhrel
How are US foreign policy Features and objectives?

The United States was born as an Independent nation in 1776. By the end of 1783, this new state was recognized by all the states of the world, as a result of which the United States became a member of the family of other nations of the world.1 George Washington became the first President of an independent U.S.

In 1797, he expressed his Policy towards other countries in this way – “We should keep business relations with them, but as far as possible, political relations should not be maintained with them.” This policy is called the United States’s policy of isolation. The purpose of this policy was that America should not get involved in the internal conflicts of Europe and should be ready for its progress.

Presenting the foreign policy of the United States, the then US President Jefferson had said that “The United States can make friendly and peaceful relations with all nations, but will not make treaties of enmity with any nation. In the past, the first President of the United States, George Washington, had said that our straight and true policy is that we should not enter into a permanent treaty with any nation of the world.

This reveals America’s former policies that America can only make temporary and short-term treaties, but what should be the equation between the nations in the long run and what should be the change in their home and foreign policies?

The foreign policy of the United States is based on the aspirations of the United States people, their responses to world problems, and the combined influence of the executive and Congress (Parliament) and the policy of the President. Every nation has its own vested interests and its foreign policy is based on national interests only. United States’s foreign policy, like any other nation’s foreign policy, is based on its geography, historical background, politics, social system, economic and cultural environment and conditions.

There are four stable points of U.S foreign policy:

  1. Isolationism,
  2. Monroe Doctrine,
  3. Freedom of movement of the seas,
  4. The policy of ‘open door’ of trade.

The diplomatic historian Bemis has given the following grounds as the foundation of US foreign policy:

  1. complete independence,
  2. anti-colonial principles,
  3. expansion in the U.S continent,
  4. non-alignment with European factionalism,
  5. Self-determination. principle,
  6. A policy of non-intervention,
  7. U.S security.

The United States foreign policy has been more pragmatic and principles have had limited impact on it.

Features of US Foreign Policy

Features of U.S Foreign Policy Some of the major features in the formulation of the foreign policy of the United States are-

  • The United States’s foreign policy has been isolationism towards Europe, as a result of which America was able to develop nuclear power efficiently for its security. Even in the Second World War (1939-45), the United States adopted a cooperative foreign policy and helped the Allies.
  • Due to the conflict between the politics of the United States and Europe, it automatically got involved in the politics of Europe. U.S. Continued to oppose the imperialist powers there. In the circumstances of the First and Second World Wars, the U.S. Established itself as a partner and world peace.
  • The U.S. Entered World War II in 1941 and surprised the world by dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, shifting the balance of power in its favour. If America had not won, Japan would have been a powerful nation in the world today.
  • The mainstay of United States foreign policy after World War II has been the policy of Containment of Communism, which meant that wherever communist intervention or aggression and international If a country with the support of communism breaks the peace or threatens the peace or threatens independence, integrity and security of the states by helping the dissident or rebellious elements of another nation, then it will be faced by the counter power of America. . To stop the spread of communism, America abandoned its isolationist policy and became protectorate for the independent nation.
  • In the 50s, America, following the collective policy, emphasized the policy of building organizations like NATO, SEATO, and CENTO. It has been a part of foreign policy for a long time. But after the end of the Cold War, the usefulness of organizations like SEATO and CENTO has decreased and the weapons of NATO organizations have also been cut. Now NATO organization has been created which can be considered an example of collective security policy.
  • An important feature of America’s foreign policy has also been that it has been fulfilling its national interests through foreign aid and military aid. Now it has made technical assistance a part of foreign policy. First started the program of providing financial assistance under the Marshall Plan, through which the purpose of acquiring military bases or monitoring that particular area is also kept.
  • The main feature of US foreign policy has been its interference in the internal affairs of nations in the name of or establishment of democracy.
  • Has intervened many times in the name of restoration of law and order and democracy and in the interests of United States citizens. Presidents Truman, Nixon, Ronald Reagan, George Bush and Clinton will always be remembered in the United States foreign policy; Because they conducted the policy of intervention during his tenure and also made world politics a struggle.
  • Carter outlined the limited nuclear attack doctrine, according to which “the United States will not fight a war implanted by Russia in a specific region or country on the basis of conventional warfare, but will itself resort to a limited nuclear attack on specific Russian targets.” This principle is the most dangerous because a limited nuclear attack can take the form of a massive nuclear war at any time.
  • The main feature of US foreign policy is to support human rights, which US President Jimmy Carter made human rights a part of US foreign policy. Through this, not only was the voice raised in the world concerning human rights, but it was made the basis of bilateral relations, economic and technological assistance and military assistance. For its supervision, a separate bureau was established in the State Department and a separate human rights officer was appointed. The State Department published details of human rights abuses and it was made the personal responsibility of US ambassadors to present human rights policy in other nations from the right perspective.
  • United States’ interest in the region has increased a bit due to the 21st century being predicted to be ‘Asia’s century’. Interest in the Asia Pacific region increased after the end of the Cold War, mainly because the countries of the European Common Market are no longer suitable markets for United States goods and capital. Europe has become the United States’s rival instead of an ally. To maintain his presence in the region, Clinton organized a summit of the 15 member countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation in Seattle in November 1993. Clinton said that “the economic explosion taking place in the Asia-Pacific region is a matter of concern for us. The fear is that both jobs, and markets will be taken away from the countries of Asia. We do not want to maintain our military presence in Asia, bear the burden of regional leadership, but be deprived of the economic development of the region, it is neither fair nor far-reaching. Is of interest.
  • After the terrorist incident of 9/11, while addressing the US Congress on September 21, President George Bush said that after today, the country which continues to give shelter or support to the terrorists, that country will be considered the enemy of America. Even now, the United States administration is running on the policy of opposing terrorism.
  • The United States was born as an Independent nation in 1776. By the end of 1783, this new state was recognized by all the states of the world, as a result of which the United States became a member of the family of other nations of the world.1 George Washington became the first President of an independent U.S.
  • In 1797, he expressed his policy towards other countries in this way – “We should keep business relations with them, but as far as possible, political relations should not be maintained with them.” This policy is called the United States’s policy of isolation. The purpose of this policy was that America should not get involved in the internal conflicts of Europe and should be ready for its progress.
  • Presenting the foreign policy of the United States, the then US President Jefferson had said that “The United States can make friendly and peaceful relations with all nations, but will not make treaties of enmity with any nation. In the past, the first President of the United States, George Washington, had said that our straight and true policy is that we should not enter into a permanent treaty with any nation of the world.
  • This reveals America’s former policies that America can only make temporary and short-term treaties, but what should be the equation between the nations in the long run and what should be the change in their home and foreign policies?
  • The foreign policy of the United States is based on the aspirations of the United States people, their responses to world problems, and the combined influence of the executive and Congress (Parliament) and the policy of the President. Every nation has its own vested interests and its foreign policy is based on national interests only. United States’s foreign policy, like any other nation’s foreign policy, is based on its geography, historical background, politics, social system, economic and cultural environment and conditions.

US foreign policy objectives

It is true that every nation formulates foreign policy to achieve its national interests, in which it also sets some of its goals. Similarly, the goals of U.S foreign policy have been stated-

  • Ensuring national security and establishing a huge military system for this and achieving supremacy in conventional and nuclear weapons.
  • The policy of containment or limitation of communism i.e. Preventing or limiting the influence of the former Soviet Union and China.
  • Establishing supremacy over the democratic countries of Western Europe and spreading a network of military alliances for their security.
  • Controlling the world economy and the world’s natural resources.
  • Supporting democracy and following the policy of interfering in other nations in the name of protecting democracy.
  • To protect against the violation of human rights anywhere in the world.
  • Supporting world peace, Dulles stated in 1955 that the overarching goal of American foreign policy was to provide opportunities for the people of the United States to achieve peace and freedom.
  • Supporting arms control and disarmament.
  • Building a new world order.
  • It is maintaining its supremacy as the world’s only superpower.
  • End terrorism.

If seen in this way, there were only two basic objectives of U.S. Foreign policy after the Second World War – to stop the spread of communism and to reduce the power and influence of the former Soviet Union (Russia). Foreign policy was to provide opportunities for the people of the United States to achieve peace and freedom.

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