In India, women do not have a strong presence in the field of politics, and identities such as family, caste, religion, and region. But for some time, the connection of gender issues with politics seems to be getting stronger progressively.
At present, many feminist organizations inspire leaders and the government as a pressure group to take steps in the interest of women and issues related to them should also be included in the core issues and they should be given equal opportunities in politics.
In recent times, the gender-politics relationship
- Bill to give one-third reservation to women in Parliament. This will ensure the active participation of women in politics.
- The issue of women’s equality is also related to triple talaq and the uniform civil code. With this, women in all religions will be treated equally.
- Movement regarding temple-mosque entry (women were given entry into Shani Shingnapur Temple and Haji Ali Dargah.) Before this, there was no entry for women in many mosques and temples, which was contrary to the right to equality.
- Demand for liquor ban by women in many states from the government. This has empowered women that the government takes their demands seriously and also solves them.
Third-gender status to eunuchs
0 The Supreme Court while giving the status of the third gender to eunuchs asked the government to give them. It has been asked to provide policy and constitutional protection so that this class is not forced to live a life of neglect. They can also be given equality according to the Indian Constitution and their basic rights in which the right to live with dignity has been provided.
The issue of gender discrimination and women’s rights. The question of the status of women in modern India arose as a part of the middle-class social reform movement of the 19th century.
These movements are termed middle-class reform movements because these reformers were from the newly emerging western-educated Indian middle class. They were often inspired by these reforms by the democratic ideals of the modern West and by taking pride and pride in the democratic traditions of their own past.
15 The ideas of these reformers were a beautiful blend of western rationality and Indian traditionalism. They talked about women’s rights on the basis of principles of humanistic and natural rights (being human) and Hindu scriptures.
Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekananda etc. gave special emphasis on women’s education so that women can come out of the four walls of the house and face new values, thoughts and their own rights and fight for their rights themselves.
The struggle for women’s rights, gender equality, and social, economic and political justice can be divided into two parts.
- Pre-independence (before 1947)
- Independence after independence
After the arrival of Gandhiji in the movement, there was a radical change in the participation of women, because the nature of Gandhiji’s means of struggle, such as non-violence, non-cooperation, and peaceful dharnas, provided a comfortable medium for women’s participation.
In the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress in 1931, under the declaration made regarding the basic rights of citizens, equality before the law, public adult franchise and the right of women to be elected for various public posts were recognized.
After 1947, legal and constitutional means were adopted to give shape to the struggle for rights, under which the Hindu Marriage Act, Anti-Dowry Act, Act for Prevention of Domestic Violence, Act for Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Workplace and Equal in Property and Succession Provisions for participation given statutory status
Various Acts of the Indian Constitution like – 14, 16, 19. 23 (human trafficking, DSPP and basic duties made various provisions for the dignity and equality of women, equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits, 73rd and 74th constitution Provisions such as one-third reservation in Panchayati Raj Institutions for women by the Amendment Act are important.
The concept of social, economic and political justice mentioned above is also directly related to women. Act-44 Uniform Civil Code is also related to the rights of women in policy directive elements because most of the laws and practices seem to be anti-women or discriminatory.
Various legal provisions were made to give practical shape to the rights of women in the social context, such as the law for equal participation in inheritance, equal share in the property (1956), the Act for Protection from Sexual Harassment (2013), protection from domestic violence Act (2005) for the prohibition of dowry system. (1961)
In this context, the Judiciary of India has also recognized many rights through judicial activism, in which Vishakha Guideline (1997) which is important for creating comfortable and dignified conditions for women in the workplace, as well as the recent decision related to the right to privacy, has given women rights. New rights have been given to them so that they can take their decision according to their own. The recent agitations regarding temple entry and the subsequent right to entry have made women realize their right to equality again.
It is necessary to mention the Act related to increasing the maternity leave to 26 weeks, which is helpful in promoting women’s health, nutrition and equal participation. On the political side, universal adult franchise, one-third reservation in Panchayati Raj institutions, and the right to be appointed and elected to any public post have mainly enabled women to put their point on the national platform. The issue of reservation in Parliament and State Legislatures has also been raised from time to time in various fora. Due to this the participation of women in politics will be increased further only after completion.
Dr Ambedkar’s statement “It is necessary for any community to get political freedom and fraternity and equality status in the society that it should first be given economic equality” shows that the lack of economic empowerment of women In other political and social rights proves to be dishonest.
In this context, many provisions were also made by the Government of India, which were expanded by our judiciary as well. Such as equal pay for equal work, various schemes run for women’s empowerment, promotional measures given to self-help groups, Vishakha Guidelines related to sexual harassment at the workplace, statutory status to National Commission for Women, 26 weeks paid leave to pregnant women, Schemes like Stand Up India, Mahila Haat, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao are important.
In this way, society can be strengthened only by increasing economic participation, which will be helpful in strengthening the nation, despite these various efforts, today’s women’s society. Facing many discriminations and challenges.
Participation in various representative institutions is not commensurate with the population.
Concept of Sarpanch Pati – at all levels
- The voice of women leaders is not raised in public forums
- No right to decide whether to stand as a candidate to vote
- Only lip service on issues related to women’s rights 6. Lack of consensus on women’s reservation – Bill pending
Challenges in the social sector
- Patriarchal and male-dominated thinking or mindset
- Non-compliance with the rights received under various laws properly.
- Heavy backwardness from men on the standards of education, health, and nutrition.
- Dowry system, domestic violence, sexual harassment, female infanticide, acid attack
- The burden of responsibility for the protection of values, ideals, culture and culture rests on the shoulders of women.
- Restrictions on the right to choose in relation to morality, family values, dress, etc. in the era of transition to marketization, and westernization.
Challenges in the economic sector: Ideal of equal pay for equal work limited to paper pages / Uncertain future in formal and unorganized economic sectors / Repressive security system Low wages etc. Very low participation in the formal sector Sexual harassment, discrimination at the workplace Neglect of property and inheritance rights 0 The situation of women’s participation at higher levels of decision making is very serious.
Financial inclusion, access to credit, unavailability of bank accounts etc. o Special problems faced by women in civil wars, communal riots and other times of conflict (refugees, migration etc.)
- The effect of anti-women comments made by leaders (people’s representatives) from public forums on the general public.
- Easy access to the internet has led to the spread of pornography, sexual violence, indecent comments, Anti-women’s dignity
- The insensitive attitude of the police, family, and social media on issues related to women (organizational structure)
- Necessary steps and responsible institutions to bring gender equality into practice.
- Legislature – Lawmaking (for security, reservation, equality etc.), Executive: Ensure compliance with laws, and rules at the ground level (Administration + Police)
- Society – promotion of women’s sensitive thinking, progressive mindset, and ease towards adopting modern values
- Ensure accountability of government and society and administration.
- Adopt means of judicial activism
- Make the justice system easy, simple and accessible and quick.
- Media: Awareness
- propaganda of
- Prohibition on content against women’s dignity
- Become a forum for debate for rights.
- Self Help Groups and NGOs
- Give voice to the issues of women’s empowerment.
- Develop the attitude of group participation.
- based on moral values
- sexually sensitive
- Universal education (emphasis on female literacy) by the woman herself:
- The strong organizational movement demanding rights
- statutory provision
- National Policy 2001 for the upliftment of women
- Maternity Leave Benefit Addl. 1961
- Child Marriage Prohibition Act. 2006
- PCPNDT – 1994
- Act to prevent sexual harassment in the workplace. 2013
- Convention for the solution of all discrimination against women 1993
Mexico Action Plan – 1975
- Beijing Declaration – 1995
- Issue of triple talaq Muslim women rights Shahbano case (1985)- Supreme Court ordered to give allowance to divorced women. New act for Muslim women to reverse Supreme Court’s decision. Rights related to Divorce Act 1986 Allowance only for 3 months. Talaq-e Vidwat Polygamy Nikah Halala Challenge- Shayra Banu Case (2017) Ban on instant triple talaq Triple Talaq.
- AIMPLAB (All India Muslim Personal Law Board)
- State emblem of hundreds of years old practice
- The state has no right to interfere in civil matters.
- The Muslim community itself is striving for reforms.
- Understanding every reform from the point of view of imposing the culture of the majority.
- Interference in religious issues is like walking on the edge of a sword
- Every tradition should be judged on the basis of logic and interpretation and recognition.
- Reforms should be initiated by the intellectuals, ulema and women of the minority class themselves.
- The antiquity of tradition is not a means to justify any evil practice.
- The state can intervene to end DPSP+ discrimination.
- Haven’t seen any improvement in these years. Gone
- Sec. Violation of 14 Art. Violation of 19
- Not an integral part of religion so can be challenged.
- A new option was adopted by banning it in many Muslim countries.
- The move towards Uniform Civil Code Article (4) is helpful in fulfilling the ideal of social justice of the Preamble.