Iran’s nuclear capabilities are advancing, raising concerns about the potential for nuclear weapons development. Despite diplomatic negotiations and economic sanctions, Iran continues to pursue its nuclear program. The US administration’s efforts to revive the Iran nuclear deal are uncertain, and reaching an internationally acceptable agreement with Iran seems unlikely. While Iran’s limited steps in slowing its build-up of weapon-grade uranium may temporarily ease tensions, it does not mean a wider nuclear deal anytime soon.
Uranium stockpiles continue to increase, and refined uranium can easily be turned into nuclear bombs. Iran has failed to address the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) concerns regarding uranium traces at undeclared sites and restore monitoring cameras, despite pressure from the West. In September, Iran denied access to nearly a third of the IAEA’s most experienced inspectors, complicating inspection of Iran’s nuclear program and the agency’s ability to provide credible assurances of peaceful purposes.
The United Kingdom, France, and Germany have refused to lift sanctions on Iran under the 2015 nuclear deal, which allowed Iran to import and export ballistic missiles and drones with a range of over 300 km. The European signatories, known as E3, argued that Iran breached the deal regarding stored enriched uranium levels and denied access to the UN’s nuclear program.
The US administration may be attempting to contain growing tensions concerning Iran, which range from its nuclear program to attacks by Iranian-backed militias on US interests and allies in the Middle East. Economic interdependencies have posed a challenge for the West in curbing Iran’s nuclear program, as Western powers often face the dilemma of preserving economic relations with Iran’s trading partners while attempting to halt the nuclear program.
Establishing a multilateral consensus, particularly with Russia and China, is challenging due to their economic and strategic interests in maintaining close ties with Iran. Domestic politics within Western nations also shape decision-making, with different political factions having different perspectives on how to address Iran’s nuclear program, potentially undermining any attempt for a unified approach to constructively countering the growing threat.
Iran’s nuclear program has been a global concern for the past decade, with the West facing numerous challenges in halting its ambitions and curtailing its nuclear program. Negotiating with a determined and ideologically driven regime has proven challenging, as Iranian officials often exploit diplomatic channels to extend negotiations while continuing clandestine research and development activities. The West also faces limited influence over Iran’s internal affairs, as Iran’s leadership disregards external pressures, withstands sanctions, and remains resistant to foreign interference.
Balancing regional security interests remains the most important aspect for the international community. Iran’s nuclear ambitions have sparked concerns among neighboring states, who often have different perspectives on the matter. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Israel perceive a nuclear-armed Iran as a direct threat to their security and geopolitical influence, increasing the risk of escalation and military conflict.
The potential for severe consequences, including regional destabilization and retaliation, is a significant concern in the context of any military action against Iranian nuclear facilities.
The West must navigate these differing interests cautiously to ensure a united front against Iran’s nuclear advancement, enabling a strong yet cohesive strategy and collective response to the Iranian nuclear threat. However, anticipating the responses of Iran’s militias across the Middle East should always be at the top of the agenda when addressing West-Arab actions towards Iran.
The India-Middle East-Europe Corridor (IMEC) was announced during the 2023 G20 summit, aiming to bring economic potential and foster cooperation among participating countries, including the US normalization efforts between Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Israel. However, the recent attacks by Iran-backed Hamas on Israel indicate that Iran’s attempts to destabilize the Arab region’s economic endeavours and curtail US-backed KSA-Israel normalization efforts are not in isolation.
Iran’s president accused the KSA of betraying Palestinians by discussing normalization of relations with Israel, and Iranian security officials gave the green light and helped plan Hamas’s surprise attacks since August. The Hamas attacks took place days after Israeli officials visited the KSA, further emphasizing Iran’s role in jeopardizing US efforts to normalize relations between the KSA and Israel.
From an economic perspective, threats to Israel from Iranian-backed groups in the region can impede cooperation and hinder the implementation of IMEC regional connectivity projects. Iran-backed Hamas attacks on Israel and reports of Iran-backed Hezbollah in Lebanon supporting and seeking to further escalate the armed conflict confirm Iran’s true destabilizing agenda towards the region. Despite the China-brokered peace agreement between the KSA and Iran earlier this year, Iran-backed Houthis in Yemen continue to attack the Saudi border, raising concerns about Iran’s true intentions towards the GCC.
The KSA-Israel normalization negotiations and the IMEC implementation presented a chance for a peaceful two-state solution to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. However, ongoing Hamas attacks and Israel’s retaliation on Gaza make restoring peace difficult. The escalation between Israel and Palestine, Ukraine, and West African coups raise concerns about Iran, Russia, and China’s indirect influence on global issues.
Iran’s technological progress in enriching uranium and developing advanced centrifuges complicates international efforts to monitor and control its nuclear program. Despite international sanctions, Iran has made significant progress in advancing its nuclear program, confirming concerns about its true intentions. Years of suspicion, lack of transparency, and violations of international agreements have eroded trust in Iran’s intentions, leading to a deep-rooted trust deficit between Iran and the international community. The ongoing escalation between Israel and Palestine, Ukraine, and West Africa must be considered to ensure a common order and vision in addressing global issues.
The international community struggles to accept Iran’s assurances about its peaceful nuclear program, hindering a peaceful resolution due to the intricate nature of diplomacy and negotiations. The West has engaged Iran in dialogue, but reaching a mutually beneficial agreement that prevents nuclear proliferation remains elusive. Protracted negotiations offer potential opportunities for Iran to delay or circumvent commitments, making a diplomatic solution elusive. Some argue that military intervention may seem like an unwanted but viable option, particularly with regard to Iran’s proxy militias in the Middle East.
The Middle East is already volatile, with existing conflicts and power struggles. If Iran continues to acquire and develop nuclear capabilities, it will increase the threat to its Arab neighbors. Iran’s aggressive stance towards regional stability could lead to a dangerous arms race, necessitating stricter force to prevent further acquisition of nuclear weapons, thus ensuring regional stability and security.
The threat of nuclear terrorism is a significant concern for global security, as Iran’s acceleration of its nuclear program increases the risk of weapons or materials falling into the hands of non-state actors or terrorist organizations supported by Iran. Military action may be seen as a necessary precautionary measure to prevent this scenario.