The whole world is divided into small and big countries These countries are developing according to their own capacity, some countries have already developed and some are developing. All these countries form a group of some countries for their own interests The countries of each group share technology with their member countries Which helps developing countries.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1962 in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand. Initially, it had five members Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines. Later this organization was expanded in the year 1984, Brunei in 1995, and Vietnam in 1957. In 1999, Laos and Myanmar and Cambodia joined ASEAN 1999.
Thus, there are currently 10 member states in ASEAN. ASEAN’s headquarters are in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia. ASEAN also adopted its charter in 2007. Its main objective is to promote economic cooperation and development in the South East Asia region. Being a victim of Cold War politics, ASEAN could not make any progress in this period, but after the end of the Cold War, ASEAN made significant progress in the direction of regional cooperation and development.
At present, the regional organization has become an emerging economic power of the world. The total area of the 10 countries of ASEAN is 4.46 million km which is 3% of the total area of the earth. In 2018, the total population of all the countries of this organization is 651 million, which is 8.8% of the total population of the world. The total gross of ASEAN countries in 2018 The domestic product was $3 trillion and the ASEAN economy is the eighth largest in the world.
Objectives of ASEAN
- According to the Bangkok Declaration announced in 1967, this organization has the following objectives
- To promote economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the member nations.
- To ensure peace and stability in the South East Asia region To provide ASEAN member states an opportunity to discuss and resolve their differences through peaceful means.
- To promote mutual cooperation in the social, economic and cultural fields among the member states.
- Providing assistance to each other for training and facilities in educational, commercial, technical and administrative matters in ASEAN countries
- To stimulate research and studies necessary for development and cooperation in South East Asia.
- To develop close and beneficial relations with other regional and international organizations of the world with similar objectives and to explore possibilities for cooperation with them.
ASEAN The first summit of the ASEAN countries was held in Bali, Indonesia in February 1976. At this summit, the top leaders of the member states signed the Southeast Asia Harmony and Concord. Whose stability and economic cooperation were to be promoted. It is notable that certain principles were determined by the Treaty of Harmony and Cooperation, which is still the basis of ASEAN functioning and these principles are known as the ASEAN.
Origin of ASEAN
- 1967 – ASEAN is formed with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the founding nations.
- The founding countries of ASEAN are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
- In the 1990s – changes in the region after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975 and the Cold War in 1991 Membership doubled following the circumstances.
- Brunei (1984), Vietnam (1995), Laos and Myanmar (1997), and Cambodia (1999) among the member states Joined
- 1995 – Centuries huddle on an agreement to make Southeast Asia a nuclear-free zone.
- 1997 – ASEAN Vision 2020 is adopted.
- 2003 – Bali Concord II for the establishment of the ASEAN Community.
- 2007 – Cebu Declaration, to accelerate the establishment of the ASEAN Community by 2015.
- 2008 – The ASEAN Charter came into force and the agreement became legally binding.
- 2015 – Launch of the ASEAN Community.
The ASEAN Community Vision consists of three pillars:
- ASEAN Political-Service Community
- ASEAN Economic Community
- ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community
- ASEAN style features
Independence, equality, territorial integrity and mutual respect for the national identity of all nations; The right of each member state to maintain its independent national existence without external interference and threat.
- non-interference in each other’s internal affairs
- Resolving mutual disputes in a peaceful manner.
- Abstaining from the use or threat of force by a member state against other members.
- To ensure effective cooperation among the member states.
The result of the ASEAN-style principles is that ASEAN has been able to achieve success in the field of economic progress and cooperation without engaging in adversarial political and military disputes.
- Economic development, social progress and To accelerate cultural development.
- Equality for the rule of law and justice and through adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter Promotion of peace and stability.
- On matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields To promote active cooperation and mutual assistance.
- Greater use of agriculture and industries, expansion of trade, improvement in transport and communication facilities and improvement in the lives of people To cooperate more effectively in level reforms.
To promote South East Asian studies.
- To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations.
- The Southeast Asia Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) of 1976 included the following Malu Bhatu principles of ASEAN
- Traditional equality for independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all countries.
- The right of every nation to lead its national existence free from external interference or coercion.
- Do not interfere in the internal matters of one-tenth.
- Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful means.
- Free use or warning of use.
- Mutual effective cooperation.
ASEAN Economic Cooperation
The area of economic cooperation mainly includes cooperation related to trade and investment. In the last 2 years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the trade between the two. In 1990, the total trade between the two was $ 22.2 million, which increased to $ 40 million in 2009. dollar and India-ASEAN trade increased to $74 billion in 2017. Both sides have decided to take bilateral trade to $100 billion by 2020. ASEAN’s share in India’s total exports was 3.6% in 1980, compared to 3.6% at present. It has increased to 6%. An important achievement of cooperation between the two in the field of trade was signed by the two sides in August 2009.
India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement is to be signed. In this agreement, both sides have decided to reduce the trade duty to minimum level on 4000 items to be traded. A free trade agreement has also been signed between India and ASEAN in the services sector in 2012. This agreement has come into effect in 2015. This agreement will promote trade in the services sector between the two sides. Another aspect of economic cooperation with ASEAN. Capital investment is related to each other. Capital investment was low in 1991. Presently bilateral capital investment between ASEAN countries and India is increasing rapidly.
ASEAN Strategic Cooperation
Strategic Cooperation An emerging aspect of India’s cooperation with ASEAN is cooperation in security matters. The ASEAN Regional Forum was established by ASEAN in 1994 to discuss security issues in the region. The problems are increasing incidents of piracy in the Malacca Strait, arms and drug trafficking and security of sea routes and terrorism.
Conditions and Opportunities
- ASEAN Asia-Pacific is more concerned with trade, political and security issues than its neighbours alone.
- Population share – It contains the third largest population in the world with more than half of The population below the age of thirty years.
- Economic Scenario: World’s 3rd largest market: bigger than EU and North America combined.
- The third-largest economy in Asia and the sixth-largest in the world.
- Free Trade Agreements (FTAs): With China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand a settlement.
- It is the fourth most popular investment destination globally.
- ASEAN’s share in global exports has also increased from 2 per cent in 1967 to 2 per cent in 2016.
- It has become 7 per cent. This reflects the growing importance of trade for the economic prospects of ASEAN.
- ASEAN’s single aviation market and open-carry policies have enhanced its transport and connectivity potential Is.
- ASEAN will promote a neutral environment by building norms and addressing common challenges has contributed to regional stability.
ASEAN Leaders’ Forum
- ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF): A two-member multilateral grouping of regional trusts launched in 1993 Developed for cooperation on political and security issues to contribute to constructive and preventive diplomacy went.
- ASEAN Glass Three: Consultative group launched in 1997 Ten Centuries of ASEAN, China, Japan and South Brings Korea together.
- East Asia Summit (EAS): It was held for the first time in the year 2005. The objective of the summit The aim is to promote harmony and prosperity. Generally, ASEAN, Australia, China, India, Japan, The nations of New Zealand, South Korea and the United States of America participate in it. ASEAN Agenda Plays a central role as the setter.
India and ASEAN Multidimensional Partnership
There are 2 revolutionary changes in India’s foreign policy in the post-Cold War period, first, the development of junior strategic relations with America and second, the effort of multi-faceted partnership with the countries of East Asia, these are called revolutionary changes because in this way in the cold period, India’s historical religious and cultural relations with the countries of East Asia could not be imagined, as well as India does not have bilateral disputes and other differences with any country in this region, India And ASEAN relations have developed rapidly.
This relationship has developed under India’s Look East policy and in the contemporary context, this policy of India can be considered India’s most successful policy after the end of the Cold War. In 1991, the Look East policy was announced by the ASEAN, under which Indian Prime Minister Narasimha Rao visited South East Asia in 1992, in 1992 India was included as a partial interlocutor in ASEAN. In 1996, India got the opportunity to participate in ASEAN as a full interlocutor nation, in the same year, ASEAN- India Joint Cooperation Council was established to strengthen relations, its purpose was to explore the areas and measures of cooperation between the two. In the same year, the ASEAN-India Business Council was established for cooperation between the business group of the two sides.
Both formed three separate working groups to promote cooperation in three areas of mutual cooperation, development science and technology and trade and investment. At this time, the main reason for ASEAN’s attraction towards India was that the ASEAN countries were going through a period of economic crisis and the large market available in India, technical capacity and India’s continuous economic progress were motivating them for mutual cooperation.
First India-ASEAN Summit
The second phase of cooperation between ASEAN and India began when in 2001, and both of them raised mutual cooperation to a higher level. As a result, the first India-ASEAN summit was organized in the city of Nam Penh in Cambodia in the year 2002. Since then India-ASEAN summits have been held regularly every year. Happening India- ASEAN Summit 2017 was held in Manila, the capital of the Philippines in which India was represented by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi Modi invited all the countries of ASEAN to the Republic Day celebrations of India on 26 January 2018 Even before this, India had organized the India ASEAN Summit in India in December 2012 to mark the anniversary of the relationship.
In 2014, the name of this policy was changed to Act East to bring more activation in the program of partnership with these countries, because of the complaint of these countries that there is a delay in the implementation of partnership programs by India. The Look East focused on trade relations with these countries, but later ties were also given prominence. A special summit of India and ASEAN was held in Delhi on 20 December 2012, the anniversary of the start of both summits. The theme of the summit, which was attended by top leaders of ASEAN members, was Partnership for Peace and Shared Prosperity.