China is the largest country in the Asian subcontinent and the most densely populated country in the world. In terms of geographical size, it is second only to Canada and is about three times larger than India. China is located at the centre of the world’s largest subcontinent, and much of the Asian subcontinent falls under the influence of Chinese culture. The countries located on the periphery of China are weak and small and the possibilities of Chinese influence on them are very high. China’s remarkable socio-political standing And recognition is given by other big powers.
Spanning more than four thousand years, the compiled history of China is the history of a great country that was economically and culturally prosperous, even in the earliest times of civilization. For much of its history, China has remained willfully isolationist and its contacts with the outside world have been nominal. The people of China were made to believe by the contemporary Chinese emperors that China was a heavenly kingdom where everything was available in abundance and it had no desire to acquire something from the outside world.
During the nineteenth century, the growth of British colonialism in proximity to China and the emergence of belligerent Japan threatened China’s position in the region. As a result of the devastation caused in China by the wars with Britain and Japan, its sphere of influence of China declined. As a result of the overthrow of the monarchy in 1911, the Republic of China was established under the leadership of Sun-Yat-Sen.
The Bolshevik Revolution that took place in Russia in October 1917 had an impact on China as well, at the culmination of which the armed revolutionary movement was developed and uplifted by the Communist Party of China under the leadership of Mao. Till the time of separation in 1927, the workers of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party continued to work together. After that, the Communist Party of China started a military struggle against the ruling party of that time, the Kuomintang Party led by Chiang-Koi-Shek. On reaching the culmination of this struggle, in October 1949, the People’s Republic of China was established under the Communist Party of China and Mao was made its president.
Determinants of China’s Foreign Policy
The foreign policy of a country is a comprehensive response to both its domestic and external factors. In the external sphere, foreign policy is facilitated at three levels, global, regional and bilateral. The foreign policy of a country is not formulated and implemented in a vacuum or vacuum. Rather, it is the actual result of some basic factors such as the geopolitical realities of the region where the country is located, its struggle for security, its domestic needs and the efforts it makes for economic development. His dedication to effort and principles. Similarly, China’s foreign policy is governed by certain basic principles, which determine the ways and means of achieving them. In spite of being different, they have adopted a steadfast form. Country and abroad. These differences have been affected by the changing circumstances of both.
Since the establishment of communist rule in the People’s Republic of China in October 1949, concern for security has remained a major task of China’s foreign policy. Over the past four decades, China’s leaders have demonstrated an unprecedented ability to adapt to changing circumstances and use a variety of strategies to achieve national security goals.
The factors by which China’s foreign policy has been influenced are as follows: national interest, nationalism, historical experience and cultural principles, (revolutionary strategy, the principle of countervailing and the principle of the three worlds) and leadership and decision-making authority. After the Communist regime came into force in 1949 and even before that, China’s policy has been operating within a framework based on the Chinese’s understanding of the dominant world trends. Analyzing China’s foreign policy during the last four decades, it can be seen that since 1950, there have been clear transformations in this framework at the end of each decade.
In the 1950s, China’s foreign policy was conducted within a bilateral framework, with Beijing clearly leaning towards the socialist camp dominated by the Soviet Union. The Sino-Soviet conflict in the 1960s prompted China to boycott camp politics. From the point of view of the Chinese, the Soviet Union had become revisionist in the 1960s, so in China’s view, the burden of protecting socialism has fallen on its shoulders.
In the 1980s, there were traumatic changes in the regional and global scene and during this period There was a change in emphasis on economic and technical issues rather than political ones. The growing power of Japan and Western Europe and the US-Soviet. The growing disharmony had presented the framework for a new multi-dimensional form of power. San. By the end of the 1980s, Chinese leaders began to believe that a country’s superiority or weakness would be decided not by its military power factor, but by its economic and technological capabilities. Hence, since then the Chinese began to analyze worldwide trends and the international situation with a view to formulating such a picture of the world, which would accordingly shape their strategy and determine their foreign policy.
The early 1990s has been characterized by unprecedented events, such as the reunification of the two Germanys, the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the emergence of the Russian Federation, the Baltic States, and the formation of five Central Asian republics as sovereign independent countries. The break-up of Czechoslovakia into the Czech and Slovak republics, the Gulf War, and the signing of the Maastricht Treaty, and efforts to create the United States of Europe in the struggle for a new world order. China’s response to these developments is closely related to its foreign policy.
The change of concept in China’s foreign policy has taken place in four phases. In the first phase in the 1950s, China’s foreign policy was conducted under the socialist camp led by the Soviet Union. In the second phase in the 1960s, China abandoned factional politics and became embroiled in its domestic politics. In the third phase in the 1970s, China came out of isolationism and became closer to the West. In the 1980s, during the period of the fourth stage, China claimed its independent role and gave more importance to the four modernizations.
Relations with South Asia
US During the period of Cold War rivalry between the Soviet Union and the Soviet Union, the position of South Asia in the global political arena increased significantly. The collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, there has been no decrease in the strategic importance of South Asia. The region gives a more prominent place in the calculations of strategic importance by the successor states of the Soviet Union, the US, China and Russia. China’s border lines are connected with Bhutan, Nepal, India and Pakistan. This has given China the status of a pre-declared superpower in the region.
India and Pakistan are the two major powers of South Asia. China’s attention is attracted towards the regional development here and similarly, the steps were taken by China in this area. There was competition with India to increase and this region was divided into two parts, India-centric and China-centric. As a result of India’s military defeat in the war between India and China in October 1962, Chinese influence in the region increased. As a result, China’s relations with Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka improved during that period.
Since the improvement of India-China relations in the early 1980s, China has adhered to the foundation of establishing friendly relations with all countries in South Asia and resolved long-standing border issues. Is committed to finding a peaceful solution, especially with India.
Relations with India
There have been many ups and downs in China’s relations with India. Although the cultural and economic historical links of both countries have been linked to each other for centuries. Nevertheless, some provocative incidents have occurred, especially the border dispute, which has damaged the friendly relations between the two countries. India was the second non-communist country to recognize the communist regime established in Beijing in 1949. India also showed enough enthusiasm in getting China admitted to the United Nations.
During the 1950s, when the Cold War was at its peak, China endorsed Mao’s two-camp theory and India’s policy of non-alignment was preferred by Beijing, which was ideologically more inclined towards the Soviet Union. Had not been. India and China came closer to each other in 1950 when India criticized American policy and supported China during the Korean crisis. Nevertheless, the good neighborly relations between each other were hindered by the issue of Tibet.
The issue of Tibet was in the form of a legacy left by the British, through which India had certain special political interests and additional interests such as ownership of some resting places, stationing some of its troops there and setting up its postal and communication system in some places. State and territorial privileges were inherited. That’s why the military action taken by China in Tibet in October 1950 alerted India.
Nevertheless, in April 1950, on the basis of Panchsheel (five principles of peaceful coexistence), both countries made efforts to reduce their differences. After that, there was a short period (1954) of Sino-Indian friendship.
-1958) phase had begun. During this phase, the Prime Minister of China, Chou-en-Li visited India. This phase did not last long and by the end of 1959, both as a result of border disputes and escalation of military encounters. The Asian superpowers swung towards the war, which basically started in October 1962.
India suffered a military defeat in the Sino-Indian War of October 1962, and although the military conflict ended after China unilaterally declared a ceasefire at the end of October 1962, a Cold War began between the two countries. Happened. As a result, the India-China friendship had come to an end and the era of Panchsheel was replaced by the era of confrontation. During this period, India was given U.S. Military and economic assistance provided by the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, the phase of friendship between India and the U.S. Proved to be very short-lived, while India’s relations with the Soviet Union took a permanent shape in the subsequent period. China’s relations became closer with Pakistan, which already had strained relations with India.
(1966-68) Since the period after the Cultural Revolution, China has established friendly relations with the countries of Asia and Africa and the policy of ending isolationism of international form. By providing support, all kinds of possibilities for the liquefaction of Sino-India relations were reduced. In India till the late 1960s and early 1970s. China’s open support to the Naxalites and the insurgency in the northeastern states of India also damaged the process of normalizing the relations between the two countries.
Until the mid-1970s, there were no signs of support for normal relations between the two countries. But till the year 1975-76. Both countries seemed eager to re-establish normal relations. In 1976, both China and India re-established diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level. After this, restrictions on trade, banking and shipping were lifted and functional contacts were resumed. In February 1979, the Foreign Minister of India went on a visit to China.
Despite the strong desire between the two countries to bring their normal relations on an equal footing, a complex form of border problem was coming in the way as the only irritant. In 1981, both countries solved the border issue. As a result, in December 1981, the first round of talks between the experts of the two countries took place on the initiative of India. In this combination, China seemed to be in favor of maintaining the “status quo ante”. China proposed some concessions which included, inter alia, recognition of Aksai Chin by India as a part of China to the east of the McMahon Line by China.
During the first round of talks between China and India on the border issue in December 1981, both sides remained adamant in their respective positions. While China was in favor of acceptance of the “status quo”, India expressed its strong opposition to this acceptance in the absence of any comparable fog.
The second round took place in May 1982. The talks did not make any appreciable progress on the boundary question. After this, there have been several rounds of talks between China and India, but no agreement has been reached on the border dispute. Nevertheless, several agreements have been signed between the two countries in the fields of trade, commerce, science and technology, and culture. In 1988, the Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi visited China and in December 1991, the Prime Minister of China, Li Peng visited India.
During Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China in 1988, the two countries agreed to set up a joint working group to discuss the boundary question. Apart from cooperation in the fields of trade and science and technology, the two countries also agreed to resolve other bilateral issues. During the visit of Chinese Premier Li Peng to India in 1991, the two countries reaffirmed the need to convene the meeting of the Joint Working Group soon and to increase the economic cooperation between the two countries. At the administrative level, discussions are being held on proposals like building confidence in each other (CBMS), including the proposal to reduce the number of military forces on the Sino-Indian border. Therefore, the possibilities of resolving the boundary issue have become clear.
Relations with Pakistan
China’s relations with Pakistan developed in the aftermath of the China-China border dispute when the two countries signed a boundary agreement in 1963. Pakistan’s relations with India were already strained over the Kashmir question. Thus, this relationship was based on an old saying “An enemy of an enemy is a friend”. Another objective of increasing China’s relations with Pakistan, S.E.A.T.O. And CENTO, is to counter the influence of Cold War military associations of which Pakistan was a member and to enhance its image in the Islamic world by allowing Pakistan to enter the Chinese sphere of influence.
During the period between 1965 and 1992, a huge military and economic aid were provided to Pakistan-China. China has made a significant contribution to the modernization of Pakistan’s security by supplying state-of-the-art weapons. China has also contributed substantially to Pakistan’s nuclear program. In the late 1980s, the U.S. Increased supply of sophisticated conventional weapons to Pakistan. When the ban was imposed by China, this deficiency was fulfilled by China. Despite its eagerness to normalize its relations with India, China has not thought of diluting its special relations with Pakistan.
Relations with Bangladesh and Nepal
In the initial years (1971-74) of the existence of Bangladesh, no diplomatic relations were established between Dhaka and Beijing, the main reason for which was China’s refusal to recognize the newly established Bangladesh. Nevertheless, since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Bangladesh in 1975, there has been a permanent improvement in their mutual relations in almost all areas.
Economic assistance and some military assistance have also been provided by China to Bangladesh. There are frequent exchanges of visits between the two countries, at the highest level. Still, China-Bangladesh relations have not reached the same level of cordiality that China and Pakistan have and the reason for this may be the uncertainty of Bangladesh’s policy towards China considering its dependence on India. While dealing with Beijing, Bangladesh is very careful in this matter, lest it should displease India and the Soviet Union. Since China, on several occasions, has reiterated its desire to promote its relations with countries in the South Asian region, China-Bangladesh relations have also made steady progress.
China’s relations with Nepal began only in the early 1960s. Before the Second World War, Nepal’s relations with the outside countries of the world were limited only to British-ruled India and Tibet. The establishment of Nepal’s relations with the outside countries of the world started only after the end of the Second World War. In the 1950s, Nepal’s relations were mainly with India and it maintained its relations with China at a low level. In the early 1960s, Nepal had established closer relations with China, but India’s role remained a significant factor in deciding Nepal’s relations with China.
China had made efforts to bring Nepal under its sphere of influence by providing economic assistance to Nepal and by supporting the peace zone proposal sent from Nepal. But since the normalization of Sino-Indian relations, China has compromised India’s special position with regard to Nepal. Nevertheless, there is a possibility of Nepal coming closer to China in case of any disturbance in the relations between India and Nepal.
Relations with ASEAN Countries
The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed on August 8, 1967, by including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. China’s relations with ASEAN countries have changed from hostile in the 1960s to friendly again since the late 1970s. In the 1950s and 1960s, the years when the Cold War was at its height, the South-East Asia Treaty Organization (S.E.A.V.O.) With the formation of the United Nations, and the establishment of US military bases in Thailand and the Philippines, boycotting the countries of Southeast Asia became China’s main political agenda. The formation of ASEAN was severely criticized by China. Apart from this, the Cultural Revolution of China, the founder of ASEAN and the active participation of America in the Vietnam War, all these events happened simultaneously.
Thailand’s geographical proximity to China and Thailand’s close military ties with the US have been a cause of concern for China. Accordingly, China’s approach to Thailand has depended on its perception of the extent to which Thailand could threaten its security. Thus, in a more comprehensive context, ASEAN’s origins were perceived by China as an organization “furthered by US imperialism to finance its war effort” in Vietnam.
China’s attitude towards ASEAN also changed after China joined the United Nations in 1971 and the rapprochement between China and the US in 1972. Diplomatic relations with China were established by Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines during the year 1974-75. Indonesia. And Singapore’s diplomatic relations with China were established in the late 1980s.
From the late 1970s to the 1980s, China maintained a tacit pact with ASEAN countries against Soviet-Vietnam rapprochement, which was perceived as a mixed gift by ASEAN members. However, the war between China and Vietnam ASEAN countries had a variety of sceptical views of the situation. For Thailand, a war between China and Vietnam was beneficial because of the possibility of another surprise attack by China, because in this situation China would have to face a large part of Vietnam’s army, far from Thailand’s borders. In contrast, China’s willingness to intervene in Vietnam was viewed with suspicion by Indonesia and Malaysia. The basis of this apprehension was China’s aversion to China’s abandonment of support for a communist resurgence in the region because of China’s traditional ties to communism.
In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia also feared that Thailand’s continued assistance to the Khmer Rouge could lead to another sudden invasion of Thailand by Vietnam, as a result of which China’s influence in the region would always increase. Accordingly, at a meeting in Kuantan on March 1980, Malaysia and Indonesia came up with a plan to address these possibilities, in exchange for reducing Vietnam’s closeness with the Soviet Union, asking China to reduce pressure on Vietnam. Was asked for By the late 1980s, the Kuantan doctrine remained the only rational alternative to affirming the status quo in relations between China and ASEAN countries. Nevertheless, due to the increasing friendship between China and America, the proposal made by America in Kuantan was not supported. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union and before the withdrawal of Vietnam’s military forces from Cambodia and the re-establishment of democracy in that country. Since then, the prospects for more normalization of relations between China and ASEAN member states have become brighter.
Relations with West European Countries
Relations with the Soviet Union
The emergence of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 and some remarkable changes in the international situation took place simultaneously. US The Cold War rivalry between the U.S. And the Soviet Union was the most notable of these, which affected the entire globe. Among other important changes, there was the emergence of some independent countries, first in Asia and then in Africa. According to Arnold Toynbee, a major factor in determining the international order of the late 1940s was the failure of the victors of World War II to maintain their wartime cooperation, resulting in the world being divided again into two opposing camps. Went.
At the time of the formulation of foreign policy, China had hardly any diplomatic option to choose between these two camps. US The People’s Republic of China was unable to establish relations with Washington due to its support for Taiwan and its pursuit of a policy of universalizing communism. And therefore, to get help and support, China could have extended a hand of friendship towards the Soviet Union. Accordingly, China chose to side with the socialist camp under the leadership of the Soviet Union. The basic premise of China’s foreign policy during this period was based on Mao’s well-known pledge to “lean to one side”, which under the Soviet leadership reflected the natural uniformity of diplomatic interests in the socialist camp. As Mao said in July 1949.
“The experiences of the Communist Party in the past have taught us to lean towards one side, and we fully agree that in order to achieve victory and give it a firm shape, we must lean towards one side. Leaning is necessary. All Chinese, without exception, must either lean towards imperialism or necessarily lean towards socialism. Staying locked in four walls will not do any good and there is no third way……. We belong to the anti-imperialist front headed by the Soviet Union, therefore we can only extend our hand to this site and not to the imperialist front for some kind of natural and friendly assistance”.
After the signing of a Treaty on Friendship, Association and Material Assistance on February 15, 1950, China and the Soviet Union had closer relations. Another agreement was also signed to extend long-term loans by the Soviet Union to China. Support was promised by the Soviet Union in case of any threat to China, especially in Japan. The control of the China Eastern Railway was given to the jurisdiction of China. Between 1950–59, assistance was provided by the Soviet Union to modernize the organization, and to provide training and military supplies to the Chinese armed forces. In addition to providing military assistance, economic and technical assistance was also provided to China by Moscow in an appropriate manner.
From 1959 onwards, relations between China and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate and reached a climax in 1962, with an almost complete break-off. Due to ideological differences between the two countries, relations started deteriorating. Stalin in 1953 The leaders who took over power after his death refined Lenin’s principles related to war. The conclusion of the new Soviet approach was the recognition that the presence of nuclear weapons reduced the acceptability of the threat of war. But China refused to accept the new interpretation of Lenin’s principles given by the Soviet Union and called the Soviets “revisionists”. In contrast, China supported the use of force, including nuclear weapons, in “wars of national liberation”.
In addition to ideological problems and disputes over territorial rights, Soviet reluctance to provide nuclear information to China and the Soviet Union’s cancellation of a 1959 agreement to provide technical assistance to China led to a rift between the two countries. It had become wider. Both China and the Soviet Union seemed certain to separate. In 1959, the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev The rift between the two countries was further exacerbated by Moscow’s treaty proposals to Washington in the period following his visit and sporadic military skirmishes along the Sino-Russian border in the 1960s. , which was formalized at the government level in October 1962 in view of the Cuban partisan crisis. Since then, some criticism of the Soviet Union from China had become more vigorous.
After the formalization of the break of relations between China and the Soviet Union, the U.N. S.-Soviet friendship came to be seen by China as a means of encirclement of China and struggle for leadership. China’s baseless apprehensions about Soviet-American relations, increased further after the Vietnam War escalated. The efforts made by the Soviet Union to improve friendly relations with India, Mongolia and other countries of Asia were seen in Beijing as troops stationed on the right and left to encircle China. San. The Soviet Union’s policy towards North Vietnam in the late 1960s was seen by China as “support in form and betrayal in reality”. This. It also accused the Soviet Union of using “joint action” to control North Vietnam, and of creating divisions among the people of China and Vietnam in order to undermine the military unity of China and Vietnam.
In the early 1970s, China and the US Since the establishment of friendly relations between the two countries, China’s attitude towards the Vietnam War also changed and it stopped accusing the Soviet Union of helping the US in this war. had supported the U.S. By China Criticism was toned down, but he accused the Soviet Union of waging a “struggle for socialist leadership”. Therefore, Russia’s invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 was seen by Beijing as a threat to China and a threat to international security and peace, and the Soviet military presence in Mongolia was also interpreted as a threat to China. The threat was made in the form of
There were some marked changes in Sino-Soviet relations in the 1980s, especially in the context of changes in the leadership of both countries. In order to normalize relations, medium-level talks were started in October 1982 and since then were being held continuously at an interval of six months. During the year 1984-85, many economic agreements were signed by both countries. In March 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party called for a serious improvement in relations with China. In 1987, two rounds of mutual talks were held between the two countries on the border question, as a result of which there was some improvement in the mutual relations between the two.
Relations with the United States
According to Mao’s theory of “leaning towards one side”, the policy of making an alliance with the socialist camp led by the Soviet Union and the inclusion of the worldwide influence of communism under the Tyumen doctrine of the U.S. In keeping with the policy of the People’s Republic of China and the U.S. No diplomatic relations were established between them. Another hot topic between the two countries is the US. Was about providing support to Chiang Kai-shek’s Taiwan. In 1949, Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan after Communist forces led by Mao overcame Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang forces. That’s why two Chinas had emerged- Mainland China or the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan or the Republic of China state. The argument presented by the communist leadership in Beijing was that Taiwan was not an independent territory but a part of mainland China. Beijing eliminated the idea of two, China and started considering itself as the real China. US Taiwan was not only given recognition, but political, economic and security relations were also established with it.
Beijing’s communist regime was not recognized by Washington and denied its privileges (VET) in the UN Security Council. He had even opposed the inclusion of China in the United Nations by the use of The argument presented in Washington that the US in the Pacific Ocean Taiwan is an essential link in maintaining China’s security system. In 1962, the US Relations between Beijing and Washington improved significantly since the establishment of friendly relations between the United States and China and after the People’s Republic of China joined the United Nations in October 1971. But the issue of Taiwan still remains a matter of concern for both countries.
The armed conflicts between North Korea and South Korea in June 1950 further hardened the US attitude towards China. North Korea was supported by the Soviet Union and China, while the USA, in this war, came to the aid of South Korea. The Korean War, which lasted three years and resulted in nearly 50,000 American casualties, forced Washington to change from its position of passive neutrality towards China to an active policy of weakening and isolating China. As a result of China’s intervention in the Korean War, its image in the communist world greatly increased and it also attained a level of great power. Although in the United Nations, U.S. Was successful in branding China as an “aggressor”, and many countries in Asia expressed sympathy and appreciation towards China.
The US was instrumental in persuading the Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan to join the South Asian Treaty Organization (S.A.T.O.), as an alliance against China. It was successful and was formally launched on September 8, 1954. The Philippines and Thailand had already provided military base areas in the US, so they were given SEATO. Pakistan had to join it, but Pakistan joined not because of any threat from Cheetah but because of its territorial problems with India.
In the 1960s, China was mostly preoccupied with the problem of the Soviet Union, especially in the aftermath of the Sino-Soviet break-up and the Soviet-U.S. Regarding the growing friendship of China, which was being seen as a tussle by the superpowers to encircle China. In the second half of the 1960s, China was preoccupied with its internal political problems, which had arisen due to the Cultural Revolution in China in 1966, and thus China voluntarily withdrew from playing any role in world affairs. Was separated.
Nevertheless, in the late 1960s, friendly treaty proposals were sent to China by Washington, which were initially viewed with suspicion by China. With the formal separation of relations between China and the Soviet Union, China began to realize that from historical, geopolitical and other points of view, China had to deal with the US. The danger of the Soviet Union is more immediate than In addition, there was also a feeling in Beijing that the US-Taiwan problem can be solved by reaching an agreement with China in some form.
With the help of Pakistan, the U.S. Talks were started to normalize mutual relations between India and China. In April 1971, the U.S. Was defeated by Chinese table tennis players. The visit paved the way for what was later dubbed “ping Pong” diplomacy. Was. On July 15, 1971, an announcement was made in Washington that in the spring of 1972. US President, Richard Nixon will visit China. President Nixon’s visit to China in February 1972 Paved the way for establishing normal friendly relations between India and China. In the Joint Government Communique, also known as the Shanghai Communique, issued after Nixon visited China, the U.S. It was confirmed that the interest in the Taiwan issue would be resolved peacefully by China itself and from there the US Military forces will be called back in a gradual manner soon. This was a huge diplomatic achievement for China.
Relations between China and the United States were formally normalized on January 1, 1979, when the two countries exchanged ambassadors, and there has been no deterioration since then. Since returning to normal, the U.S. There have been two distinct aspects of China-US relations: the Anti-Soviet United Front (1972–81) and the independent foreign policy (1982–89). In the early 1970s, China still referred to the “U.S.” in its foreign policy pronouncements. Described the “struggle for leadership by But, after the death of Mao and Zhou En-lai in 1976, the Chinese invasion of US foreign policy ended as China was willing to ally with any anti-Soviet government and movement in the world.
In 1978, the program “four modernizations” was adopted by the Communist Party of China, after Mao’s reign and after the “Gang of Four” was abolished. The program of these “four modernizations” of foreign policy was adopted. This “four levels of modernization” of foreign policy meant the following:
- Rapid economic construction and modernization of China,
- Peaceful foreign environment to implement the functions of development and modernization
- Reducing security problems – first with the western countries, then with the neighbouring countries and remaining with the Soviet Union and the socialist bloc; and
- A formulation of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao with China and firmly establishing China in one form, considering Beijing as the capital.
To achieve these objectives as a target, it was essential that the U.S. China should have closer relations with the capitalist world led by China’s drive to modernize, its break with Moscow, and its apparent conflict with Vietnam have attracted the attention of the US. And had provided more inspiration to form a “United Front” together with its allied nations. China and provided the facility for clear talks with North Korea. In the United States, it has ranged from Namibia to the two Gulf Wars, the first between Iraq and Iran and the second between Iraq and the US. On the issue of accompanying military forces of the Allies under the leadership of the U.S. Had provided assistance. In return, the U.S. China has supported China’s recently adopted development goals, has not let it feel short of technology and capital, and has helped China overcome trade and Taiwan problems.
In the 1980s, US Following a visit to Beijing by Harold Brown, the U.S. Security Secretary, China and the U.S. Security cooperation began to develop This cooperation gradually developed in three directions: exchange of high-level visits, functional exchanges at military-to-military levels and exchange of techniques. In April 1985, between 1989 and 1989, U.S. sales of military arms alone to China increased to 800 million U.S. Dollars. The dollar was reached.
China and the US There has been a manifold increase in the area of mutual trade between the two countries. In 1972, when friendship relations were established, the value of trade done by both sides was only 96 million U.S. The dollar increased to 2.3 billion US in 1979. The dollar was reached. In 1989, the value of trade between China and the United States increased to US$17.8 billion. Dollar and thus, in the last two decades, it had increased by 700 per cent. China’s place has emerged as the US. has become the tenth largest trading partner of the United States and in turn, after Hong Kong, the U.S. Rank of China’s largest trading partner and capital foreign capital. Has become second as an investor. In 1988, US capital investment in China increased from 400 projects to 630 projects, including 3500 US projects. There was a commitment to invest dollars. The US to China Also got the reputation of being the Most Favored Nation (MFN) by In the period following the events of June 1989, when the Chinese authorities crushed a student demonstration in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square and adopted repressive policies, China and the US It was envisaged that there would be a subtle form of disturbance in the closest and easy relations.
(G-7) along with other member countries of the Group of Seven including the US. France, West Germany, Britain, Japan, Canada and Italy were involved. US-China condemned by the US for this crackdown and bilateral aid, trade and security cooperation with Beijing was suspended. Nevertheless, soon after China adopted a policy of appeasement in its internal affairs, the US Soon after the policy of settlement was adopted by the U.S. Some restrictions were lifted by November 1990. The human rights situation in China is a major factor. The US towards China At this point in time, this appears to be the most embellished form of development.
Relations with Western European countries
On a bilateral basis and within the broad framework of the European Community, the relations between China and the countries of Western Europe have made substantial development in recent years. During the Cold War era, relations with China and the countries of Western Europe were characterized by almost negligible mutual suspicion. In efforts to practically determine the status of its foreign relations by China, changes were made from time to time in China’s foreign policy regarding Western Europe. In the 1950s, when China clung to the “two-camp concept”, Western Europe was influenced by the US. It was considered a subordinate part of the “imperialist camp” controlled by the Therefore, attempts by China to form an independent foreign policy towards Western Europe were rejected.
After the apparent break in Sino-Soviet relations in 1960, in 1964, a new interpretation of the international order was made by China in terms of “three circles” in which Western Europe was placed as one of the “second intermediate circles”. Featured as part of. In 1974, when China reformulated its notion that the international order now consisted of the “Three Worlds”, Western Europe was placed in the Second World along with Japan, which was allegedly having an independent role in world affairs.
After the normalization between China and America in 1972, China Started establishing contact with Europe. In the 1970s, Chinese embassies were expanded to all European countries and upgraded, and in 1975 the Chinese ambassador to Belgium was given the right to represent China’s interests to the European community in Brussels.
Western European countries are a powerful source of security supplies needed to modernize China’s military forces. US Or now China is militarily weak compared to the present Russian Federation. Guided by this core concern, China’s political and military leadership has simultaneously adopted a two-pronged strategy of using skilful tactics to alter the balance of power and sustainably develop its arms industry and military forces.
To meet China’s security requirements, the major countries of the European Community are very suitable for China because of their modern arms industry. Although there are relations of security cooperation between China and the US, with the establishment of extensive cooperation between China and European countries in the field of security-related supplies, the US China’s dependence on India will be greatly reduced.
In the late 1970s, European Community countries could supply both technical know-how and weapons to Beijing’s security needs. But the question of arms sales to China comes under the jurisdiction of COCOM, which is part of NATO. There is a coordinating committee formed under the ATO whose responsibility is to provide ATO to communist countries. China, an influential member of the UN, as opposed to approving arms sales to Beijing. Since members of the European Community are also members of NATO. Since he was a member of Congress, he was reluctant to disobey Washington.
China and the US Due to the normalization of relations between the U.S. and the rapid deterioration in U.S.-Soviet relations immediately following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the U.S. There was a change in the attitude of the U.S. Along with this, European countries opened the way for the sale of military-related goods and techniques to China. At present, the main countries exporting weapons to China are the UK, France, and West Germany.
By the time the Communist Party regime was established in Beijing in October 1949, the United Nations had been established for four years. Chinese leader Mao, in a statement on August 1949, welcomed a “United Nations Conference on International Organizations” held in San Francisco in 1945. In pursuance of its “two China” policy, the U.S. Has offered China membership in the United Nations. It was fiercely opposed by the Communist Party because of its support for Taiwan under this policy and opposed Beijing for supporting the Kuomintang for the liberation of China. China was able to get membership in the United Nations in October 1971.
Regarding the role of the United Nations in solving international disputes and the U.N., There have been changes from time to time in the perception of China regarding the actions to maintain peace. From the late 1940s to the early 1950s, the role of the United Nations in finding solutions to international disputes has been appreciated by China. China has been critical of the role of the United Nations from the late 1950s to the early 1980s.
But in the last period of 1985, a new Chinese attitude emerged, as a result of which China not only encouraged the United Nations to play an active role in settling international disputes but also specified that China can also make its due contribution to these efforts which it should do.
From the late 1940s to the early 1950s, despite the United Nations’ intervention in the Korean War, the U.N. The reason why China maintained a positive attitude towards the UN was that China hoped that its ally, the Soviet Union, would act as a deterrent to the US on this world body. would not accept the control of the Western forces led by But with the deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations in the late 1950s, U.N. Was instrumental in bringing about a change in China’s perception of China, which later turned critical.
China’s perception was that the United Nations in general and the Security Council, in particular, were the tools of imperialism and/or social imperialists, to be used by them to further their own interests and for strategic, political, and economic purposes.It is done to enjoy political, economic and even territorial benefits.
In the 1960s, the U.N. China’s attitude towards China was governed by its perception of the international order and its relations with the two superpowers. He considered this world organization as a tool of American imperialists and Soviet revisionists to further the politics of neo-colonialism and big powers. After joining the United Nations in October 1971 and becoming a permanent member of the Security Council, U.N. Partial change in China’s attitude towards happened. U.N. In its first decade of UN membership, 1971–81, China’s functioning and the process was that of an outside observer rather than a fully responsible member, and it did not miss the opportunity to criticize the world institution bitterly.
After the death of Mao and the fall of the “Gang of Four” and the emergence of a more open-minded and more pragmatic leader in China, such as Deng Xiaoping, it was possible for China to have a U.N. Vs. Had begun to reconsider his own role. In the 1980s, China adopted an “independent foreign policy”, which emphasized defending closer ties with the United States, and suggested seeking compromises with China, and third-world countries.
Was asked to establish the closest relationship. The inevitable result of implementing such a policy was a change in its foreign relations and China’s greater engagement with the world to promote its interests. For this, it was also necessary for China to have a more active role in the United Nations.
Since 1985, China’s attitude towards the United Nations has become more cooperative. The United Nations has been highly praised by the Chinese. While giving a speech on the occasion of the celebration of the 40th Foundation Day of the United Nations, the Prime Minister of China, Zhou Jiang said, “It is almost rare in the history of the world for any international political organization to achieve such an enduring form of vitality as the United Nations, which has is increasing day by day in global scope and importance” and since then China has been playing a more constructive and active role in the United Nations.
Since the beginning of communist rule in October 1949, China’s foreign policy has been a mix of its response to global and regional developments and China’s national interests. In 1950, when the two superpowers-A.S. The Cold War between the Soviet Union and the Soviet Union was at its peak when differences of opinion and differences between the U.S. Relations between China and the Soviet Union were friendly, and the U.S. Continued to adhere to the two-China concept. China was opposed to China regarded the United Nations as a tool of US imperialism and looked suspiciously at its neighbours in South and South-East Asia, which had close ties with Washington.
In the 1960s, China’s foreign policy underwent countervailing changes immediately after the rift in Sino-Soviet relations in 1959–60, and it also felt threatened by social-imperialism thereafter. In South Asian countries, while China’s relations with Pakistan and Nepal had improved, relations between China and India became strained immediately after the Sino-Indian War in October 1962. In the late 1960s, China was engaged in the Cultural Revolution, which resulted in China’s isolation from the outside world.
The US in the 1970s China’s relations with China improved and in October 1971, China joined the United Nations. Nevertheless, Sino-Soviet relations remained tense. Deng Xiaoping’s leadership emerged after the death of Mao and Zhou Enlai and the dissolution of the Gang of Four. In the late 1970s, China embarked on the ambitious Four Modernizations program and improved its relations with Japan and the industrialized countries of the West in order to obtain economic and technical assistance. With ASEAN countries also, improved their relations.
In the 1980s, while maintaining friendly relations with the US, Western European countries and Japan, China pursued an “independent foreign policy” aimed at It was to reduce the closeness of relations with India and improving its relations with third-world countries. Since the mid-1980s, China has also started actively participating in the activities of the United Nations in view of its foreign policy objectives.