What is European Union and how many countries in Europe?

by kaarthik shankar
What is European Union and how many countries in Europe?

The European Union is. Many European countries are members of this organization. Within this organization, 27 European continents are associated with the organization as members.

Its organization was established on 1 November 1993. This organization is also called the most powerful organization in the world. There must be a question in your mind what is the European Union? If you want to get more information related to it like what is European Union and how many countries are included in this organization,

The European Union is a group of 27 countries that act as a cohesive economic and political bloc.

Its 19 member countries use the ‘euro’ as their official currency, while 8 member countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Sweden) do not use the euro.

The desire to create a single European political entity in the form of the European Union developed in order to end centuries of fighting between European nations that culminated with World War II and the destruction of much of the continent.

The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardized system of laws that apply to the affairs of all member states and that all member states have an opinion on.

Target

  • To promote peace, values and well-being for all citizens of the EU.
  • To provide freedom, security and justice without internal borders.
  • It is based on a highly competitive market economy and environmental protection, with sustainable development, balanced economic growth and price stability, full employment and social progress.
  • Removal of social exclusion and discrimination.
  • Promotion of scientific and technological progress.
  • To promote economic, social and regional solidarity and coordination among EU countries.
  • to respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity
  • Establishing an economic and monetary union with the euro as its currency.

History

  • European integration was seen as a way to contain the extreme nationalism after World War II that nearly devastated the continent.
  • In 1946, at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, Winston Churchill went ahead and advocated the emergence of the United States of Europe.
  • In 1952, six countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) formed the European Coal and Steel Community (European Coal and Steel Community) under the Treaty of Paris to eliminate part of their sovereignty by placing their coal and steel production in a common market. Coal and Steel Community – ECSC) established Went.
  • The European Court of Justice (till 2009 it was called the Court of Justice of the European Communities) was also established under the Paris Treaty in the year 1952.
  • The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organization established by the Euratom Treaty (1957) with the original objective of creating a specialist market for nuclear energy in Europe. It also aims to develop nuclear power and distribute it among its member states and sell the surplus to non-member states.
  • It has the same number of members as the European Union, which is governed by the European Commission and the Council and operates under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice.
  • The European Economic Community (EEC) was established according to the Treaty of Rome (1957). The initial objective of the community was to establish economic integration between the founding members (six) by including a common market and customs union.
  • Its existence ended with the Lisbon Treaty of 2007 and its activities were included in the EU.
  • According to an agreement in the Merger Treaty (1965, Brussels), three communities (ECSC, EAEC and EEC) were merged to form the European Community.
  • The Commission and Council of the EEC were to take over the responsibilities of their counterparts in other organizations (ECSC, EAEC).
  • The initial expansion of ECs took place in the year 1973 when Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom became its members. After this, Greece joined in the year 1981 and Portugal and Spain in the year 1986.
  • The Schengen Agreement (1985) paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states. It was effective in the year 1995.
  • Single European Act (1986): This act was enacted by the European Community. It committed its member states to a timetable for their economic merger and established a single European currency and common foreign and domestic policies.
  • Maastricht Treaty-1992: (also called Treaty of European Union) This treaty was signed on 7 February 1992 by members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. It got more impetus/promotion after the end of the Cold War.
  • The European Communities (ECSC, EAEC and EEC) were incorporated as the European Union.
  • European citizenship was created, allowing citizens to live and move freely between member states.
  • A common foreign and security policy was established.
  • An agreement was reached between the police and the judiciary on mutual cooperation in criminal matters.
  • This paved the way for the creation of a separate European currency ‘The Euro’. this Euro was the result of several decades of debate on increasing economic cooperation in the West.
  • It established the European Central Bank (ECB).
  • It enabled people living in EU countries to run for local offices and elections to the European Parliament.
  • A monetary union was established in the year 1999 and was brought into full effect in the year 2002 it is made up of 19 EU member states using the euro currency. Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain are its member countries.
  • In 2002, the Treaty of Paris (1951) expired and the ECSC ceased to exist and all its activities or functions were taken over by the European Community.

Lisbon Treaty of the year 2007:

  • The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends two treaties and that constitute the constitutional basis of the EU.
  • The EAEC is the only Community organization that is legally separate from the EU has common membership and is governed by the various EU institutions.
  • Euro crisis: The European Union and the European Central Bank (ECB) have struggled with high sovereign debt and slowing growth in Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain since the 2008 global financial market collapse. In 2009, Greece and Ireland received financial support from the community, which was a form of fiscal austerity. The year In 2011, Portugal followed the Second Greek bailout.
  • Interest rate cuts and economic stimulus are failing to solve these problems.
  • Northern countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands resented the financial exodus from the south.
  • In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for its contribution to the advancement of human rights, democracy and peace and reconciliation in Europe.
  • Brexit: In the year 2016, the U.K. A referendum was organized by the government and the nations voted to leave the EU. There is currently a process within the United Kingdom to formally exit the EU.
  • Now the process of formally leaving the European Union is under the control of the UK Parliament.

Government

  • European Council

  • It is a collective body that defines the overall political direction and priorities of the European Union.
  • It consists of the President of the European Council and the European Commission as well as the heads of state or government of EU member states.
  • The High Representatives of the Union for Security Policies and Foreign Affairs also participate in the conferences.
  • It was established as an informal conference in the year 1975. The Council of Europe was established as a formal body in the year 2009 after receiving the powers of the Lisbon Treaty.
  • The decisions of this conference were adopted unanimously.
  • European Parliament: It is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU). It carries out the legislative functions of the European Union in cooperation with the Council of the European Union (also known as ‘the Council’).
  • The European Parliament does not have as many legislative powers as the parliaments of its member states.
  • Council of the European Union: It is part of the essentially bicameral EU legislature (the other legislative body being the European Parliament) and represents the executive governments (ministerial) of the EU member states.
  • In the council, ministers of the government of each country of the European Union meet to discuss, amend, adopt laws and coordinate policies. Ministers have the authority to commit their governments to carry out actions agreed upon in the meeting.
  • European Commission (EC): It is an executive body of the European Union. It is responsible for legislative processes. It is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding EU treaties and managing the day-to-day affairs of the EU.
  • The commission functions as a cabinet government with 27 member states. One member per member country joins the commission. These members are proposed by the member countries only, which is given final approval by the European Parliament.
  • One of the 27 member states is proposed by the European Council for the presidency and elected by the European Parliament.
  • The High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of the Union is appointed by the European Council by vote and this decision requires the consent of the President of the European Council. The High Representative is responsible for the implementation of the EU’s foreign affairs, security and defence policies.
  • European Court of Auditors (ECA): It checks the proper management of EU institutions and EU funding to member states.

it to arbitrate any alleged irregularities

  • May refer unresolved problems to the European Court of Justice.
  • The members of the ECA are appointed for 6 years by the Council after consultation with the Parliament.
  • Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU): To ensure that all It applies equally to EU countries, interprets EU law and settles legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions.
  • It can also approach individuals, companies or organizations to take action against EU institutions if they feel that their rights under the EU system have been violated.
  • Each judge and advocate general is appointed jointly by the national governments.
  • It is located in Luxembourg.
  • European Central Bank (ECB): It is the central bank for the euro and conducts monetary policy within the euro area which includes the 19 member states of the European Union.
  • Governing Council: This is a decision-making body of the ECB. It is composed of the governors and executive boards of the national banks of the euro area countries.
  • Executive Board: It controls the day-to-day operations of the ECB. It consists of the ECB President and Vice President and 4 other members who are appointed by the national governors of the euro area countries.
  • It sets the interest rates at which it lends to commercial banks in the euro area, thus controlling inflation and the money supply.
  • It authorizes the euro banknotes issued by the countries of the euro area.
  • Ensures the soundness and security of the European banking system.
  • It is located in Frankfurt, Germany.
  • European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS): It was established in the year 2010. These include:
  • European Systematic Risk Board (ESRB)
  • 3 European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs)
  • European Banking Authority (EBA)
  • European Security and Markets Authority (ESMA)
  • European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA)

Work

  • EU law and regulation is intended to create a cohesive economic unit of its member states so that goods can be freely transported across member states’ borders in a single currency without duty and the creation of an enlarged labor force, which Ensures the more efficient distribution and utilization of labor.
  • It is a pooling of financial resources so that member states can ‘bail out’ or borrow money to invest.
  • The union’s expectations for member states have political implications in areas such as human rights and the environment. The union can impose heavy political costs, such as an austerity budget and various cuts, as conditions for granting aid to its member states.

Business

  • Free trade among its members was one of the founding principles of the European Union, thanks to the single market. Beyond its borders, the EU is also committed to liberalizing world trade.
  • The European Union is the largest trading bloc in the world. It is the world’s largest importer of manufactured goods and services and the largest market for exports to more than 100 countries.

Humanitarian Aid

  •  The European Union supports people affected by natural disasters around the world and supports millions of people every year.
  • The EU and its member states are the world’s leading donors of humanitarian aid.

Diplomacy and Security

  •  The EU plays an important role in diplomacy and works to promote stability, security and prosperity, democracy, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law at the international level.

Challenges and Improvements

  • It is currently unclear whether all the old member states will remain in the federation. Members have the right to opt-out of the European Union after the Lisbon Treaty. The financial crisis has hit Greece badly. It is feared that this country will move out of the Union.
  • In countries where labour is cheap, job migration, retrenchment and vacancies affect the daily lives of European citizens. EU is expected to solve economic problems and employment.
  • There are also calls for standard labor agreements on employment and working conditions that would apply across Europe and even the world. As a member of the World Trade Organisation, the EU is in a position to influence global development.
  • The EU plays a global leadership role in the development of Key Enabling Technologies (KETs). Creation related to key enabling technologies (KETs) is declining in the EU and patents are increasingly being exploited outside the EU.
  • European leaders now fear that transit security guarantees will focus not on alliances and common interests, but on purchases of American technology and materials.
  • The European Union, like the United States, has been pressing for a rethink of its relationship with Russia, vocal about the implications for European security and stability. The European Union has spoken of cooperation in the political transition period of Ukraine. Condemned Russia’s annexation of Crimea in March 2014 and strongly urged Russia to stop supporting separatist forces in the eastern region of Ukraine.
  • Brexit: The European Union has imposed many rules on trade and in return has been charged a billion pounds in annual membership fees.
  • In the year 2004, the European Union added eight Eastern European countries.
  • This triggered a wave of immigration and put public services under strain. The share of foreign-born residents in England and Wales stood at 13.4 per cent as of 2011, nearly doubling from 1991.
  • Brexit supporters wanted the UK to take back full control of its borders and reduce the number of people coming to live or work in the UK.
  • He argued that the EU was being transformed into a super state which impinged on national sovereignty. They believe Britain is a global power without any blocs and can negotiate better trade treaties on its own.
  • The process of exiting the European Union is governed by Article 50 of the Treaty of the EU.
  • A deal between Britain and the European Union that gives it the power to control immigration and gives 500 million people preferential access to the EU’s tariff-free single market. The economic strength of the world’s largest trading bloc has been rejected by Germany and other EU leaders.
  • Various governing bodies belonging to the European Union
  • It conducts its functions through the Governing Bodies of the European Union. These governing bodies help the European Union in various ways so that it can conduct its functions smoothly.

European Council:

  • The European Council is a collective body of the European Union. Its main purpose is to give direction to all political affairs of the European Union and to determine the priority of various political issues.
  • The first formal meeting of the European Union was held in 1975 AD. After this, the ‘Treaty of Lisbon’ came into force in 2009 AD. The European Council was established as a formal institution through the Treaty of Lisbon, which came into force in 2009 AD. Prior to this, the Council of Europe had existed only as an informal institution.
  • The ‘Head of the Government’ and the ‘Head of the State’ of all the member countries of the European Union participate in the conference and its meeting of the European Council. Apart from this, the President of the European Council and the President of the ‘European Commission’ also participate in this organization. All decisions taken at a meeting of the European Council are taken by consensus of the members.

European Commission:

  • The European Commission is an ‘Executive Body’ of the European Union. This body is mainly responsible for implementing the decisions of the European Union, implementing the various laws of the European Union and managing the day-to-day activities of the European Union.
  • The ‘European Commission’ is such a body of the European Union, which not only implements the decisions taken unanimously by it but also oversees the day-to-day work of the European Union.

European Parliament:

  • The European Parliament is the only parliamentary body of the European Union. That is, apart from the European Parliament, there is no other body of the European Union, which is directly elected by the people. The European Parliament is a bicameral body, one of which is the European Parliament itself, while its other house is known as the ‘Council of the European Union’.
  • The members of this body of the European Union ‘ the European Parliament’ are directly elected by the people. All persons who are 18 years of age or older in the member states of the European Union participate in the election of members for this body. That is, the members of the European Parliament are elected on the basis of a universal adult franchise.

Council of European Union:

  • We understood that the bicameral parliamentary system has been adopted in the European Union. The first house of the European Parliament system is known as the ‘European Parliament’, while the second house is known as the ‘Council of the European Union’. The Council of the European Union is also popularly known as ‘The Council’.
  • The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, both of these houses together perform legislative functions for the European Union. Unlike the European Parliament, this body consists of ministers from the member states of the European Union. Thus, it is clear that the institution called ‘The Council of the European Union’ (CEU) is different from the institution called the ‘European Council’ (EC). Completely different. But both institutions are definitely the ‘Governing Body’ of the European Union.

The European Central Bank (ECB):

  • The European Central Bank is another governing body of the European Union. This bank works for the European Union in the same way as the central bank of a country works for that country.
  • This European Central Bank of the European Union formulates monetary policy for the currency called the ‘Euro’ and administers various aspects related to it. We have already mentioned that out of total of 28 member countries of the European Union, only 19 member countries have accepted Euro as their currency. so euro The organization of these 19 countries, which accept the rupiah as their national currency, is called the ‘Euro Zone’. In such a situation, the European Central Bank of the European Union is only responsible for the Euro Zone.

A Formulates and administers its monetary policies

  • The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)

  • This judicial institution belonging to the European Union was first formed in 1952 through the Treaty of Paris. At that time this judicial institution was named ‘The Court of Justice of the European Communities. But later in the year 2009
    The name of this institution was changed to ‘The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU).
  • The most important function of this judicial body is that it interprets the laws of the European Union. Apart from this, this judicial institution also ensures that all the laws of the European Union are applied equally in all the member states of the European Union.
  • The Court of Justice of the European Union is charged with the responsibility of adjudicating disputes between the member states of the European Union, between the national governments of these member states and between any institutions of the European Union. , then he should dispose of them. From this point of view, it can be said that ‘The Court of Justice The Court of the European Union is a judicial body with wide powers, which is authorized to resolve almost all issues related to the European Union.

What is Brexit?

  • Britain also used to be a major member country of the European Union, but a few years Ago Britain announced its separation from the European Union. This phenomenon of separation of Britain from the European Union is called ‘Brexit’. In fact, Brexit is made up of two words, these words are ‘Britain’ and ‘Exit’. Its literal meaning is the process of Britain’s exit from the European Union.
  • Currently, the UK is not a member of the European Union. The British Parliament has approved the legislative process for Britain’s exit from the European Union. In fact, there were some major reasons behind Britain’s exit from the European Union, due to which a period of movements started in Britain. The people of Britain wanted Britain to leave the European Union because due to the arrangements of the European Union, the resources of Britain are captured by the people of other countries and the people of Britain have to be left empty-handed.

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